It’s About More Than Money: Adviser Qualifications, Racial Makeup of Staff and School Location Predict Scholastic Media Success
Respondents in a 2017 Gallup poll said they have little confidence in the public schools today with only 36 percent having a “great deal” or “quite a lot” of confidence in the schools. While the rising tide of mediocrity so often mentioned in educational research pushes for more funding— smaller class sizes and higher teacher salaries, this research and that of others shows money may not be the leading factor in success in a scholastic media environment. When 310 of the most successful scholastic broadcast, yearbook, newspaper and online programs were examined, the qualifications of the teachers, the location of the school and the racial diversity of the school were more likely to predict success than per pupil revenues or low student/teacher ratios.
American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education. November 1973. No One Model American: A Statement on Multicultural Education. Washington, D.C.: AACTE.
Ansary, Tamin. March 9, 2007. “Education at Risk: Fallout from a Flowed Report” in Edutopia.
Chavira, Adriana. Winter 2015. “Vignettes of Poverty” in Communication: Journalism Education Today 49(2): 25-39.
Coleman, J.S., Campbell, E.Q., Hobson, C.J., McPartland, F., Mood, A.M., Weinfeld, G.D., & York. R.L. 1966. Equality of Educational Opportunity. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Columbia Scholastic Press Association. 2016. “CSPA Presents 76 Gold, 123 Silver Crowns at 2016 Student Awards Convention.”
Cornman, S.Q. 2016. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2013–14 (Fiscal Year 2014) (NCES 2016-303). National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, D.C.
Council of Economic Advisers. 1998. Changing America: Indicators of Social and Economic Well-Being by Race and Hispanic Origin. Washington, D.C.: The Council.
Darling-Hammond, Linda. 2000. “How Teacher Education Matters” in Journal of Teacher Education, 51(3): 166-173.
Dee, Thomas. 2005. “A Teacher like Me: Does Race, Ethnicity, or Gender Matter?” The American Economic Review, 95(2): 158-165.
Edmonds, Ronald. October 1979. “Effective Schools for the Urban Poor” in Educational Leadership, 37(1): 15-18.
The Freedom Forum. 1994. Death by Cheeseburger: High School Journalism in the 1990s and Beyond. Arlington, Virginia: The Freedom Forum.
Fuller, E. J. 1999. Does Teacher Certification Matter? A Comparison of TAAS Performance in 1997 Between Schools With Low and High Percentages of Certified Teachers. Austin: Charles A. Dana Center, University of Texas at Austin.
Graff, Pat. 2002. “Achieving Diversity on Staff and in Coverage” in Principal’s Guide to Scholastic Journalism. Iowa City, Iowa: Quill and Scroll Foundation at the University of Iowa.
Graziano, Claudia. Feb. 9, 2005. “Public Education Faces a Crisis in Retention” in Edutopia.
Greenman, Robert. 1991. The Adviser’s Companion. Columbia Scholastic Press Association: New York.
Grissmer, David, Ann Flanagan and Stephanie Williamson. 1997. “Does Money Matter for Minority and Disadvantaged Students? Assessing the New Empirical Evidence” in Developments in School Finance, W. Fowler, ed. U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement.
Guthrie, James W. Winter 1997. “School Finance: Fifty Years of Expansion” in Financing Schools: The Future of Children, 7(3).
Hanushek, Eric. 1996. “School Resources and Student Performance,” in Gary Burtless, ed., Does Money Matter? The Effect of School Resources on Student Achievement and Adult Success. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 74–92.
Hanushek, Eric. 1994. Making Schools Work: Improving Performance and Controlling Costs. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution.
Hanushek, Eric. March 1998. “Conclusions and Controversies about the Effectiveness of School Resources” in FRBNY Economic Policy Review.
Hanushek, Eric. 2011. “Valuing Teachers: How Much is a Good Teacher Worth?” in Education Next, 11(3): 40-45.
Hanushek, Eric, Rivkin, S.G., and Jamison, D.T. December 1992. “Improving Education Outcomes while Controlling Costs.” Carnegie-Rochester conference series on public policy, bi-annual conference proceedings. New York: Elsevier Science, 37: 205–38.
Hedges, Larry and Rob Greenwald. 1996. “Have Times Changed? The Relation between School Resources and Student Performance,” in Gary Burtless, ed., Does Money Matter? The Effect of School Resources on Student Achievement and Adult Success. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 74–92.
Hinders, Kathy. 1995. “Dual Certification and the Regular Education Initiative” in Journal of Teacher Education, 46(3): 200-208.
Huberman, Bernardo, Christoph Loch and Ayse Önçüler. 2004. “Status as a Valued Resource” in Social Psychology Quarterly 67(1): 103-114.
Jensen, Robert. 2005. The Heart of Whiteness: Confronting Race, Racism and White Privilege. San Francisco, California: City Light.
Journalism Education Association. Nov. 1, 2017. “Fall 2017 Semiannual Report” from JEA.
Kaup, Thomas. Winter 2015. “Vignettes of Poverty” in Communication: Journalism Education Today 49(2): 25-39.
Kennedy, Jack. Summer 2012. “How Journalism Leads the Way” in Communication: Journalism Education Today 45(4): 37-47.
Kliemt, Hartmut. 1985. Moralische Institutionen: Empiristische Theorien ihrer Evolution.
Lawrence-Lightfood, Sara. 1983. The Good High School: Portraits of Character and Culture. New York: Basic Books.
Lips, Dan, Shanea Watkins, John Fleming. September 2008. “Does Spending More on Education Improve Academic Achievement?” in Backgrounder, 2179.
Mehta, Jal. Summer 2015. “Escaping the Shadow: A Nation at Risk and Its Far-Reaching Influence” in American Educator 39(2): 20-26.
Monk, David H., John Pijanowski, Samid Hussain. Winter 1997. “How and Where the Education Dollar is Spent” in Financing Schools: The Future of Children, 7(3).
National Center for Education Statistics. 2016. “Digest of Education Statistics.”
National Center for Education Statistics. 2017. “Digest of Education Statistics.”
National Center for Education Statistics. Jan. 8, 2018. “National Spending for Pubic Schools Increases for Second Consecutive Year in School Year 2014-15.”
National Research Council. 1999. Making Money Matter: Financing America's Schools. Committee on Education Finance, Helen F. Ladd and Janet S. Hansen, editors. Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Neckermann S, Frey BS. 2013. “And the Winner Is… ? The Motivating Power of Employee Awards” in Journal of Socio-Economics 46: 66–77.
Odden, A. Spring 1994. “Decentralized Management and School Finance” in Theory into Practice 33(2): 104–11.
Ramsey, Ross. June 27, 2018. “Texans Think State Leaders are Falling Short on Public Education, UT/TT Poll Finds” on Texas Tribune.
Strauss, Robert and Elizabeth Sawyer. 1986. “Some New Evidence in Teacher and Student Competencies” in Economics of Education Review 5(1): 41-48.
Stutz, Terrence. July 6, 2014. “Texas’ School Reform Law of 1984 Still Touches Millions of Students” in the Dallas Morning News.
Suárez-Orozco, Marcelo and Suárez-Orozco, Carola. 2009. “Globalization, Immigration and Schooling” in Banks, James. The Routledge International Companion to Multicultural Education. New York, New York: Routledge.
Tolliver, Preston. June 20, 2018. “Vote to Eliminate Journalism Requirement Hurts Entire State” in The Madison County Record.
Tyack, David and Larry Cuban. 1995. Tinkering toward Utopia: A Century of Public School Reform. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
United States. National Commission on Excellence in Education. Department of Education. 1983. A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform: A Report to the Nation and the Secretary of Education, United States Department of Education. Washington, D.C.: The Commission.
University of Iowa. Breakthrough: A Multi-cultural Guide to High School Journalism. 1992. Iowa City, Iowa: University of Iowa.
Vegas, Emiliana. July 2016. “Why Money Matters for Improving Education.”
Voltz, Deborah, Nettye Brazil and Alison Ford. September 2001. “What Matters Most in Inclusive Education: A Practical Guide for Moving Forward” in Intervention in School and Clinic 37(1): 23-30.
Wai, Jonathan and Frank Worrell. 2015. “Helping Disadvantaged and Spatially Talented Students Fulfill Their Potential” in Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3(1): 122-128.
Willingham, Daniel. Spring 2012. “Why Does Family Wealth Affect Learning?” in American Educator.
Wilson, Bradley. “Lifestyles of the Not-so-Rich” in Communication: Journalism Education Today 49(2): 25-39.