Cigars, Castro and Communism: Country Concept as a factor in Cuban tourism advertising effectiveness

Authors

  • Jami Fullerton Oklahoma State University
  • Alice Kendrick Southern Methodist University
  • Sheri Broyles University of North Texas

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.58997/smc.v31i2.18

Abstract

A study conducted prior to the historic announcement about resumption of diplomatic relations between Cuba and the United States measured US adults’ attitudes toward Cuba as well as their interest in visiting the island nation. Within the framework of the Model of Country Concept, this paper presents U.S. respondent attitudes toward Cuba as well as whether those attitudes moderate the effectiveness of a Cuban tourism television commercial. The study is the first to couple a scale of Country Reputation and a measure of Country Image in an effort to arrive at Country Concept and its potential to moderate advertising effects.

References

Ahmed, A. & Davis, J. (2015) U.S. and Cuba reopen long-closed embassies, New York Times 20 July. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/21/world/americas/cuba-us-embassy-diplomatic-relations.html?_r=0, accessed 22 July 2015.

Anholt, S. & Hildreth, J. (2004). Brand America. Great Britain: Cyan Books

Anholt, S. (2011). Competitive Identity. In Morgan, Nigel, Pritchard, Annette & Pride, Roger (Eds), Destination Brands: Managing Place Reputation, 3 rd edition (pp. 21-31) Oxford, UK: Elsevier.

Babbie, E. (2009). The practice of social research (12th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Barringer, F. (2000). The Elian Gonzalez case; the hometown newspaper; newspaper in sea of outrage over coverage of Elian case. The New York Times, April 24. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2000/04/24/us/elian-gonzalez-case-hometown-newspaper-sea-outrage-over-coverage-elian.html

Bendixen, M.T. (1993). “Advertising Effects and Effectiveness.” European Journal of Marketing, 27(10), 19-32.

Bojanic, D.C. (1991). “The Use of Advertising in Managing Destination Image.” Tourism Management, 12(4), 352-355.

Business Dictionary (2015) Brand image. Retrieved from http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/brand-image.html

Carty, V. (2009). Capitalist measures within a socialist model: A commodity chains analysis of the emerging Cuban tourism industry. Canadian Journal of Latin American & Caribbean Studies, 34(67), 163-195. Retrieved from http://libproxy.library.unt.edu:2104/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=e8dc395ab052-46da-8c0d-cd6404842e89%40sessionmgr14&vid=7&hid=104

DeYoung, K. (2015). Obama moves to normalize relations with Cuba as American is released by Havana, Washington Post (December 17). Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/report-cuba-frees-american-alan-gross-after-5-years-detention-on-spy-charges/2014/12/17/a2840518-85f5-11e4-a702-fa31ff4ae98e_story.html Cuba’s Country Concept —

Gladstone, R. (2014, February 10). Majority of Americans favor ties with Cuba, poll finds. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2014/02/11/world/americas/majority-of-americans-favor-ties-with-cuba-poll-finds.html?_r=0

Federal Register (2015) Cuban assets control regulations. Retrieved from https://www.federalregister.gov/articles/2015/01/16/2015-00632/cuban-assets-control-regulations, accessed 6 July 2015.

Fullerton, J. & Kendrick, A. (2015, May). The Model of Country Concept: How attitudes toward Nations Are Formed. Paper Presented at International Communications Association, San Juan, PR.

Fullerton, J. & Holtzhausen, D. (2012). Americans’ attitudes toward South Africa: A study of country reputation and the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 8(4), 269-283.

Kendrick, A., J Fullerton, J. & Broyles, S. (2015). Would I go? US citizens react to a Cuban tourism campaign. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy,11, 249–262. doi:10.1057/pb.2015.14

Fullerton, J.A., Kendrick, A., & Kerr, G. (2009). Australian student reactions to U.S. tourism advertising: A test of advertising as public diplomacy. Place Branding & Public Diplomacy, 5(2), 141-150. doi:10.1057/pb.2009.7

Fullerton, J., Kendrick, A., & Wallis, C. (2008). Brand Borat? Americans’ reaction to a Kazakhstani place branding campaign. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 4(2), 159 -168.

Fullerton, J. & Kendrick, A. (2011). Australian tourism advertising: A test of the bleedover effect among US travelers. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 7(4), 244 -256.

Fullerton, J. & Kendrick, A. (2013). Strategic uses of mediated public diplomacy: International reaction to US tourism advertising. American Behavioral Scientist, 57(9), 1332-1349. doi: 10.1177/0002764213487737

Golan, G. (2013). Introduction: An Integrated Approach to Public Diplomacy American Behavioral Scientist, 57(9), 1251-1255. doi:0002764213487711.

Kauremszky, I. (2010). Auténtica Cuba: putting yourself in the picture. Travel Industry (July 5). Retrieved from http://www.travelindustrytoday.com/web/index.php?option=com_k2&view=item&id=10733:autentica-cuba-puttting-yourself-in-the-picture&Itemid=14 Cuba’s Country Concept — 23

Kirkpatrick, D.D. (2003, May 4). U.S. halts Cuba access by educational groups. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2003/05/04/travel/travel-advisory-correspondent-s-report-us-halts-cuba-access-educational-groups.html

Kotler, P., Asplund, C., Rein, I. & Haider, D. H. (1999). Marketing places Europe: Attracting investment, industry, and tourism to European cities, communities, states and nations, Financial Times/Prentice Hall, p. 160.

Kotler, P. & Gertner, D. (2002). Country as brand, product, and beyond: A place marketing and brand management perspective. Journal of Brand Management, 9 (4), 249 -261.

Kotler, P., Haider, D. H. & Rein, I. (1993). Marketing places: Attracting investment, industry, and tourism to cities, states and nations, Free Press, p. 141;

Mela, C.F., Gupta, S. & Lehmann, D.R. (1997). The long-term impact of promotion and advertising on consumer brand choice. Journal of Marketing Research, 34 (2), 248-261. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3151862

Miller, M. M., Henthorne, T. L., & George, B. P. (2008). The competitiveness of the Cuban tourism industry in the twenty-first century: A strategic re-evaluation. Journal of Travel Research, 46(3), 268-278. Retrieved from http://libproxy.library.unt.edu:2945/content/46/3/268.full.pdf+html

Olsen, J.E., McAlexander, J.H., & Roberts, S.D. (1986). The impact of visual context of advertising upon the perceived vacation experience. Tourism Services Marketing: Advances in Theory and Practice, 260-270.

Palmer, J. (2011). Representations of Cuba in the United States media and the politics of gender. Conference Papers – American Sociological Association, 2033.

Passow, T., Fehlmann, R., & Grahlow, H. (2005). Country reputation – From measurement to management: The case of Lichtenstein. Corporate Reputation Review, 7, 309-326.

Pérez, L.A. (2008). Cuba in the American imagination: metaphor and the imperial ethos. University of North Carolina Press.

Potts, R. (2013) Autentica Cuba tourism caravan, Caribbean News Digital 18 November, retrieved from http://www.caribbeannewsdigital.com/en/print/27842, accessed 4 September 2014.

Rod (2011). Authentica Cuba brand identity campaign, CreativeRoots, 10 December. Retrieved from http://creativeroots.org/2011/10/auténtica-cuba-brand-identity-campaign/, accessed 6 July 2015. Cuba’s Country Concept — 24

Shimp, T.A., & Kavas, A. (1984). The Theory of Reasoned Action applied to coupon usage. Journal of Consumer Research, 11 (December), 795-809.

Suddath, C. (2009, April 15). A brief history of U.S.-Cuba relations. Time, Retrieved from http://content.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1891359,00.html

U.S. Travel Association (2014). Economic impact of travel & tourism. Retrieved from U.S. Travel Association website: http://www.ustravel.org/government-affairs/travelindustry-economic-impact

Waade, A. (2010). Imagine paradise in ads: Imagination and visual matrices in tourism and consumer culture. NORDICOM Review, 31(1), 15-33.

Weilbacher, W.M. (2003). “How Advertising Affects Consumers.” Journal of Advertising Research, 43 (2), 230-34.

Whitefield, M. (2014, February 11). Cuba poll reflects changing political landscape in Florida. The Miami Herald. Retrieved from http://www.miamiherald.com/news/business/internationalbusiness/article1960257.html#!

World Travel & Tourism Council (2015). Cuba Annual Research Key Facts. https://www.wttc.org//media/files/reports/economic%20impact%20research/countries%202015/cuba2015.pdf

Yang, S., Shin, H., Lee, J., & Wrigley, B. (2008). Country reputation in multidimensions: Predictors, effects, and communication channels. Journal of Public Relations Research, 20(4), 421-440. doi:10.1080/10627260802153579.

Downloads

Published

2019-05-31

Issue

Section

Articles